NDM-1 refers to a gene’s protein product that some bacteria make. A bacterial strain that carries NDM-1 will be resistant to even some of the strongest antibiotics. Few current antibiotics can combat bacteria that have the NDM-1 gene, making it potentially dangerous. NDM-1 stands for New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase-1.
Why is New Delhi in the name of the resistance gene NDM?
The NDM-1 enzyme was named after New Delhi, the capital city of India, as it was first described by Yong et al. in December 2009 in a Swedish national who fell ill with an antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection that he acquired in India.
Is ndm1 contagious?
These bacteria are true superbugs resistant to virtually all commonly used antibiotics. NDM–1 and other resistant bacteria spread from person to person through contact with contaminated hands or items.
What does NDM stand for in microbiology?
New Delhi metallo-beta lactamase (NDM) produced by bacterial isolates from the Indian subcontinent are the latest carbapenemases, which hydrolyze all beta lactam antibiotics (except aztreonam), including the broad spectrum antibiotic “carbapenems”, thereby causing havoc in hospitals and community .
What is NDM healthcare?
New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) is a metallo-β-lactamase able to hydrolyze almost all β-lactams. Twenty-four NDM variants have been identified in >60 species of 11 bacterial families, and several variants have enhanced carbapenemase activity.
What do beta lactam antibiotics do?
β-lactam antibiotics are bactericidal, and act by inhibiting the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls. The peptidoglycan layer is important for cell wall structural integrity, especially in Gram-positive organisms, being the outermost and primary component of the wall.
What does lactamase do?
The beta-lactamase enzymes inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics by hydrolyzing the peptide bond of the characteristic four-membered beta-lactam ring rendering the antibiotic ineffective. The inactivation of the antibiotic provides resistance to the bacterium.
How common is ndm1?
This superbug is widespread in India, and, by 2015, researchers and medical experts detected it in more than 70 countries worldwide. In this article, we explore the nature and possible dangers of bacteria with the NDM-1 gene.
How can you help prevent antibiotic resistance?
There are many ways that drug-resistant infections can be prevented: immunization, safe food preparation, handwashing, and using antibiotics as directed and only when necessary. In addition, preventing infections also prevents the spread of resistant bacteria.
Why is there a shortage of new antibiotics?
There is a current shortage of new antibiotics, with fewer pharmaceutical companies engaged in the process of drug development since the 1990s. In order to bypass the problems of antibiotic resistance and a lack of new drugs, radical new ways of treating infection are being researched.
What is NDM file transfer?
Connect:Direct—originally named Network Data Mover (NDM)— is a computer software product that transfers files between mainframe computers and/or midrange computers. It was developed for mainframes, with other platforms being added as the product grew. … by Sterling Software.
What do NDM and KPC have in common?
The similarities in the spread and resistance spectra of KPC and NDM-1 (both provide resistance to nearly all β-lactam antimicrobial drugs) leads to the hypothesis that similar mobile elements will make both genes available to similar pathogen populations.
What is hospital tourism?
Medical tourism is when a person travels to another country for medical care. Each year, millions of US residents participate in medical tourism. Medical tourists from the United States commonly travel to Mexico and Canada, as well as countries in Central America, South America, and the Caribbean.
Where does the KPC bacteria live in the body?
Klebsiella bacteria are normally found in the human intestines (where they do not cause disease). They are also found in human stool (feces). In healthcare settings, Klebsiella infections commonly occur among sick patients who are receiving treatment for other conditions.
What is KPC infection?
Abstract. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing bacteria are a group of emerging highly drug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli causing infections associated with significant morbidity and mortality.